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欧盟通过应对气候变化的历史性决议

2019年02月02日 栏目:汽车

欧盟通过应对气候变化的“历史性”决议2014年11月18日13:11 来源:中国电力欧盟通过了一项历史性决议——截止2030年,欧盟

欧盟通过应对气候变化的“历史性”决议

2014年11月18日13:11 来源:中国电力

欧盟通过了一项历史性决议——截止2030年,欧盟国家的温室气体排放量至少减少40%。

欧洲各领导人10月23日在布鲁塞尔的欧洲理事会上正式提出的这一目标是为实现更加安全、更具可持续性、更具竞争力的欧洲能源系统的系列重要举措之一。

英国一直在欧洲带头努力达成一个宏伟而灵活的减少碳排放量的协议,同时使英国和其他欧盟成员国能够灵活决定如何在消费者成本的原则下开展脱碳工作——同时通过减少欧盟对进口能源的依赖来改善能源安全。英国的《气候变化法案》和《电力市场改革》已经为英国的低碳经济发展指明了道路,而发表的这些措施进一步确定了这条道路的正确性,而且它不会对英国的能源消费者和纳税人造成额外的负担。

英国能源和气候变化大臣爱德华·戴维说:

“这是个历史性的时刻。欧洲向世界发出了明确而坚定的信号——我们急需采取行动应对气候变化。我们信守诺言,带来了更具挑战性的欧盟气候目标,同时也通过降低对进口能源的依赖性从而显着加强了欧洲的能源安全。在今天 (10月23日) 早上,只有5个欧洲国家拥有2020年后的气候目标,但现在扩展到了28个国家。”

“英国始终积极引领着关于气候的讨论,通过建立联盟及与欧洲伙伴的通力合作,我们推动了决议的形成,决议提出的一系列措施都与英国的当务之急相符合。”

“此决议向世界发起了设立宏伟气候目标的挑战,对欧盟能源政策进行改革,使其更具灵活性也更便宜,同时可以增强能源安全——到2030年欧洲的化石燃料进口能源费用可减少大约2850亿欧元。”

“这对于消费者来说是件好事,因为我们可以使用多种科技结合的方式以的成本实现脱碳。”

“而且对于企业来说这也是个好消息,因为决议可以提供企业需要的确定性,从而将数十亿低碳投资解锁。”

这一系列措施的核心是:

到2030年欧盟温室气体(GHG)境内排放量至少降低40%。这:

达成在上个月举行的联合国气候峰会上首相对欧盟提出的要求,即到2030年欧盟温室气体排放量至少降低40%。

使欧盟以成本脱碳,达到2050年减少欧盟碳排放量80%-95%的目标。

确保2030年之前,28个欧盟成员国都在减少碳排放方面做出巨大努力,为企业提供更公平的竞争平台。

鼓励其他国家在明年举行的巴黎全球气候谈判之前提出类似的宏伟的气候承诺。

至少27%的欧盟可再生能源目标和至少27%的能源效率目标。这:

确保欧盟能源政策的实质性改革,为英国和其他国家提供更大的灵活性,允许它们以成本自行设计低碳能源结构,包括可再生能源、能源效率,以及核能、碳捕集与封存(CCS)和天然气。

委员会影响评估也显示了这些可再生能源和能源效率将使欧洲国家以更具成本效益的方式实现40%温室气体排放的目标。

号召欧盟排放交易体系(EU ETS)进行改革,包括引入英国一直呼吁的市场稳定储备(MSR)。见10月20日发表的英国能源与气候变化部政策文件。

欧盟支持工作的延伸拓展——通过“创新基金”对碳捕集与封存项目进行资助。作为欧洲的碳捕集与封存技术国家,英国能够很好地将欧盟资金支持进行充分利用。英国的白玫瑰CSS项目已经收到了NER300计划3000万欧元的资助。

该决议满足了企业、投资者和经济学家的呼吁,他们希望欧盟能够迅速达成协议或提出2030决议,从而为欧盟2020年后的能源和气候政策框架提供长期的清晰的思路,这些呼吁包括:

欧洲的57个大型公司,包括壳牌、联合利华、葛兰素史克和翠丰集团于10月6日发给欧盟领导人的信函。

10月22日英国工业联合会的呼吁。

10月22日经济学家汤玛斯·皮克提、克劳迪娅·肯菲特和卡梅隆·赫本的信函。

总之,该决议通过以下措施将会显着加强欧洲能源安全:

到2030年缩减14%的欧盟净能源进口量,到2030年缩减12%的欧盟天然气进口量(来源:委员会能源效率影响评估,第41页表格5)

从现在起至2030年,与参考情境相比每年节省140亿欧元的欧盟化石燃料净进口额。(来源:委员会能源效率影响评估,第41页表格5)

到2030年,与参考情境相比累计节省欧盟化石燃料净进口额达2850亿欧元(来源:委员会能源效率影响评估,第41页表格5)。

The European Union has reached a historic deal to cut greenhouse gasses by at least 40% domestically by 2030.

The target is part of a package of measures to make Europe’s energy system more secure, sustainable and competitive, announced by European leaders at the European Council meeting in Brussels on 23 October.

The UK has been leading efforts in Europe for an ambitious but flexible deal that cuts carbon emissions whilst giving the UK and other Member States the flexibility to decide how they will decarbonise at least cost to consumers - while also improving energy security by reducing the EU’s reliance on imported energy. The UK’s Climate Change Act and Electricity Market Reforms have put the UK on a clear path to become a low carbon economy, which is further enhanced by these measures announced with no expected additional cost impact for UK bill and tax payers.

UK Energy and Climate Change Secretary Edward Davey said:

“This is a historic moment. Europe has sent a clear and firm message to the world that ambitious climate action is needed now. True to our word, we have delivered a highly ambitious EU climate target while also significantly strengthening Europe’s energy security by making us less reliant on imported energy. This morning only five countries in Europe had climate targets post 2020, now 28 countries do.

“The UK has been leading the climate debate pushing for an ambitious deal in Europe and by building alliances and working constructively with our European partners, we’ve agreed a package of measures that meet all the UK’s top priorities.

“It lays down the gauntlet to the world to come forward with ambitious climate targets, reforms EU energy policy so it’s flexible and affordable and tackles energy security - reducing Europe’s energy import bill for fossil fuels by around 285 billion by 2030.

“It’s good for consumers because we can decarbonise at the lowest possible cost using a diverse mix of technologies.

“And it’s good for business as it provides the certainty they have been calling for to unlock billions in low carbon investment.”

The key elements of the package are:

A binding domestic EU Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction target of at least 40% by 2030. This:

Fulfils the Prime Minister’s call for the EU to agree a domestic EU GHG target for 2030 of at least 40% at the UN Climate Summit last month;

Keeps the EU on least cost path to meeting its 2050 goal of reducing EU emissions by between %;

Ensures all 28 EU Member States make significant emission reductions efforts through to 2030, creating a more level playing field for business;

Encourages other nations to bring similarly ambitious climate pledges ahead of the global climate talks in Paris next year.

An EU level renewables target of at least 27% and an indicative energy efficiency target of at least 27%. This:

Ensures a substantial reform of EU energy policy, providing greater flexibility for the UK and others to design their low carbon energy mix at least cost, including renewables, energy efficiency, as well as nuclear, CCS and gas;

The Commission’s Impact Assessment also shows that these levels of renewables and energy efficiency would be delivered cost-effectively across Europe under a 40% GHG target.

Calls for the EU ETS to be reformed by including a Market Stability Reserve (MSR) as the UK has been calling for. See the DECC Policy paper released on 20th October

Extended and expanded EU level support – via an ‘Innovation Fund’ - for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) demonstration projects. As a leader in CCS technology in Europe, the UK is well-placed to capitalise on further EU funding support. The UK’s White Rose CCS project was awarded 300m under the existing NER300 programme.

This package fulfils the calls from business, investors and economists for the EU to urgently agree and ambitious 2030 package in order to provide long-term clarity over the EU’s post-2020 energy and climate policy framework such as:

A letter of 6th October to EU leaders from 57 major companies in Europe including Shell, Unilever, GlaxSmithKline and Kingfisher.

Calls from the UK’s CBI on 22nd October.

A letter of 22nd October from senior economists Thomas Piketty, Claudia Kemfert and Cameron Hepburn.

Overall, this package will significantly strengthen Europe’s Energy Security by:

Cutting EU net energy imports by 14% in 2030 and cutting EU gas imports by 12% in 2030 (Source: Commission Energy Efficiency Impact Assessment, Table 5, p41);

Deliver average annual saving to the EU’s fossil fuel net import bill of 14bn a year between now and 2030 compared to reference scenario (Source: Commission Energy Efficiency Impact Assessment, Table 5, p41);

Deliver cumulative savings to 2030 of 285bn in reduced fossil fuel imports compared to reference scenario (Source: Commission Energy Efficiency Impact Assessment, Table 5, p41).

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